Thursday, July 31, 2008

Novelty singing of a divinely ordained besura Mukesh(by ssmurthy)

Retakes were very common between atleast Shankar and Mukesh rendered songs.

Shankar is on record that "Mukesh was considered a "besura" singer. Maybe he was slightly, but he had his own "khubsoorti" in it. Not many know that while recording the song "Awara took us days before Mukesh sang it perfectly. It became a craze after its release." and the final melody, always was the result of a lot of working on his vocals during the retakes.

Mukesh was himself conscious of this fact and even after attaining dizzy heights as a singer , he would often humorously chide his fellow composer colleagues that their songs were famous because of besura singers like him.

Mukesh was more than once bewildered when one MD okayed straightaway a song sung by him and also complimented him for his beautiful rendering, stating " How can you say I sang so well ? Your song will click only if I sing besura once or twice".

It was to Mukesh's credit that he never ever made composers feel that it was they who needed him though often it was so. SD Burman was known for his penchant for distancing himself from Mukesh's singing voice but yet his musical genius warranted presenting 'Chalri sajni ab kya hoga ..." for "Bombai ka Babu" through him (his second choice his first being Kishore who was unavailable) and even told Mukesh that he would scrap his version of the number if the recorded results were not to his expectation.

Mukesh answered Dada Burman the only way he knew singing "Chal ri sajni..." with a feeling of meaningful depth, leaving Dada for once overwhelmed at the deliverance and retained it as a rare pristine acievement not only here but also when it came to recording of " Oh jaane wale ho sake tho laut ke aana....." for Bimal Roy's "Bandini". Most of us and SDB fans would surely recollect these two rare SDB Mukesh novelties with great relish and nostalgia.

Hasrat Jaipuri recalls the many recording sessions with Jaikishan the Mukesh number "Duniya banane wale .... for "Teesri Kasam" and Mukesh would always sit on the floor and since Hasrat was sitting on a sofa, would request him to sit on a chair, Mukesh would say "We are all going to die one day, nobody is going to take a chair along" Strangely the same essence was embedded into its macrocosmic level into the other famous number, as Mukesh recalls with fond sagacity,

"My regard for Shankar is astute and full of reverence, as most of the title songs sung by me , were from his domain " and continues philosophically

From whom else can I get a composition like

"Sajan re jhoot mat bolo , khuda ke paas jaana hai ,
na haathi hai na ghoda hai, wahan paidal hi jana hai


Mars and Movies: The Awesome and Amazing Amiya- SJ Association.


Genesis of the beginning of a subtle and sensational bond
The Awesome and Amazing
ASSOSCIATION (By ssmurthy)


It was an unusual day, as Shankar was busy preparing for a rehearsal as he briefed Jai about the impending visit of a film maker whom he invited, for a hearing of some tunes, he thought, would be to the film makers liking, having got an inkling of the proposed subject theme, under contemplation.

The gentleman in question was getting late, and as it was getting well past afternoon, Jaikishan was becoming restless, as the time for his english movie matinee rendezvous was nearing,

Observing all this was Shankar, while reprimanding Jai, chided him, giving him his early lessons on commitments. Jai then gave in to his senior partner and touched up the base tune composed by Shankar with the famous (to become) flourishing on the harmonium within the next half an hour or so, and what novelty he embellished the tune with, is fondly remembered by Shankar ever since.

Enter Gentleman Amiya :

The gentleman in question was the sensitive film maker Amiya Chakraborthy and the tune "Aiye mere dil kahin aur chal" (not yet in the word format) and the Film "Daag".

This was how the Amiya Chakravarthy - SJ association began and a string of emotion filled movies like "Patita" ,"Badshah", "Seema" "Kathputli" "Apne Huye Paraye" and so on, with a neat social message packed with some amazingly awesome music emerged, bringing in an authentic connosiers delightful debate on the horizon, whether "The SJ - Amiya combo was a shade subtler vis a vis the RK -SJ combo".

Amiya's dilemma and thespian Dilip:

Amiya had thespian Dilipkumar in mind for the lead role, but was hesitant in view of the premium price he commanded those days. Soon Dilip came to know of this and did not brook his price interfere with the role. And what a performance he gave, playing the die hard alcoholic, smitten between the pangs of love, the compulsions of his addiction and his yearning for his mother, deservedly bagged the first FF award for acting in the year 1953, which was otherwise dominated by Bimal Roy for Do Bigha Zamin, Meena Kumari and Naushad Ali for Baiju Bawra.
The arrestingly breezy and fleeting harmonium beats and the straight to the heart - felt words "Aiy mere dil kahin aur chal, gham ki duniyan se dil bhar gaya, dhoond le ghar koyi ek naya ......"
leave you transmuted at the vagaries of helplessness, finding solace in philosophic askance in an utopian world of wishful thinking.

This song had also three versions;

When you have a sozzled up Dilip wallowing in a morass of self pity erasing his woes of misery,

Again the Lata version when you have Lalita Pawar pleading Nimmi to croon this song as a consolation holding her last breath, awaiting the return of her son, who has gone to buy those life sustaining medicines and in the process gets lost in the stupor of his drink,only to find his mother lost for ever. SJ's background score depicting the death scene is serenity beyond expression and Dilip's acting soon after he arrives and realises his mother is no more, is poignancy, hard to emulate and can be treated as an acting lesson for alltime.

We also have this song in the beginning, as Lalita Pawar welcomes arrival of her son reaching for him at the outskirts of her village to the opening strains of merry accompaniment and again in the grand finale as a reformed Dilip kicks the bottle for ever, returning back in prosperity and gets united with his much relieved lover.

If there are two numbers which can be voted for their novelty among the lesser known but immaculately crafted ones, recall the numbers,

"Hum dard ke maron ka ,itna hi fasana hai,

peene ko sharabe gham, dil gham ka nishana hai"


"Koi nahin mera is duniyan me, Aashiyan barbad hai...."

both these songs heighten the impact of helplessness as the script warrants, through the vibratingly silken smooth voice of Talat, no wonder the numro uno, opted by most celebrities then, for melancholic and romantic songs.

In between you have "Yeh dekho, kaise hai aaya zamana..." in a lighter vein by Lata and company.

"Preet yeh kaisi bol re duniya...... .." a forlorn and pensive Nimmi voices her concern of subconscious love for Shankar (Dilip's name in the film) and what a subtle melody, composed in a style, that was a token tribute to the master composer Naushad Ali for whom Jai had a lot of regard, while Shankar respected Chitalkar.

and you have that everlasting and haunting Lata solo

"Kaheko dher lagaayi re, aaye na ab thak balama...... ."

a cry in wilderness expressing her anguish agonizingly, the bitter predicament of a lovelorn damsel in distress over her alchoholic lover.

Interestingly Dilip Kumar amidst so many Naushad numbers has become synonomous with this SJ tune "Aiy mere dil kahin aur chal" as much as Raj Kapoor with "Awara hoon" and Dev to toast with "jiya ho jiya ho jiya ho."




Shankar Jaikishan: A Retrospective Tribute

Shankar being elder to Jaikishan by nearly half a score of years should have logically gone first. If it had happened that way Jai's position would have been similar.The disadvantage of being Shankar Jaikishan is as true the advantage of being Shankar Jaikishan. Both had reaped unprecedented success as music directors while both of them were living.

Salient features on sharing of workload :
To meet the workload from the plethora of films coming as a bounty in the wake of their resounding commercial viabilty, inevitably lead to a standing arrangement between the two.

The title songs, theme tunes,classical music and,the dance compositions which forms the most difficult part of song composition would be done by Shankar being a one time dancer himself.,
Whereas the softer tunes, romantic numbers, the more modern ones and the arduous task of scoring background music was done by Jaikishan. Naushad sab is on record on how Jai had the rare ability of instant mental notation once the film was unreeled for the background score and what a dream score it would be with its telling audiovisual impact on the viewer.

While the contours of day to day functioning were so distinct it was inevitable that there should have been disharmony and disarray immediately consequent upon Jaikishan's sudden demise and Shankar taking on those extra cudgels shared by Jaikishan.

It took some time naturally for Shankar to readjust and it is sadly this transit phase when Shanker was value judged as a solo composer and the commercial viability of Shankar at stake.

As a natural corrolary would it not have been Jai's fate as well?

In the aftermath of Jai's exit:
the year that Jaikishan passed away (1971) SJ had between them no fewer than 17 releases and bulk of those have flopped by the time Jai passed away.

But the moment Jai died only his success over the 22 years was remembered while Shanker had to carry the full onus, all by himself not only the flops that had already come in the year 1971 but the failures immediately after Septembe12 1971, though most of those compositions pertained to Jaikishan.
The harsh truth is that SJ's image broke when Jai so suddenly shuffled his mortal coil and Shanker had all by himself to pick up the pieces. A couple of immediate boxoffice hits (which were SJ's forte till then ) would have helped and rejuvenated Shanker from the sinking morass of depression he found himself in. But he had no such luck. Shankar fought what was at best a gallant rearguard waterloo.

Lady luck and Glamour kid Jai :
That is called luck for Jaikishan. Could it not be said Jaikishan was born to Lady Luck. He was this lady's glamour kid from word go.Jai patronised only the most modern restaurants at Churchgate in Bombay. His aura was built around his handsome semblance, endearing personality, his marriage to a socialite like Pallavi had added to his charisma. It was said that Jai would be the first person sent for no sooner Shammi Kapoor signed a film giving the composer a vantage position in the industry. Jaikishan had a tongue coated with honey. He only made friends and is amazing for one who was so enviably succesful all through his career. His death revealed that he was amiable with the entire industry . Shankar candidly spoke on these aspects of Jai which were his natural traits in an interview with Amin Sayani.
Shankar, Lata and Sharada :
Shankar never had the need for dealing with the commercial and PR aspects with film producers so long as Jai was alive and the need to curb his inbuilt outspoken trait of wearing his heart on his sleeve did not arise. In fact his rocklike stubbornness which had paid him dividends while the going was good was now a detrimental factor. Mind you when Shankar was asked why he chose Sharada as a singer who is a nonentity and a nobody, he nonchallantly replied that Lata also was the same when SJ chose her for the songs of Barsat.

Lata's word counted a lot in the industry at the time when Jaikishan died, and unfortunately, (for whatever reasons) Sharada did not turn out to be the Midastouch Shankar anticipated from her and Lata faced no threat ever from either Sharada or Shankar.

Shanker was a broken man by now, with the wind against him and with most of the bigwigs in the film industry havng deserted him, Shankar's pride of self respect now was mocking indignant when he was denied the large orchestra he was used to tantamounting to one's hands being tied to one's back.

Inscrutable are the ways of Nature, the duo's rehearsal room at Famous studios which many moons ago had hordes of producers throng its corridors waiting in anticipation with a thick wad of notes to sign the Silver Jubilee music directors has since dwindled. Yet holding his head high in the light of his bereavement from Jaikishan and his disillusion around not being recalled to RK, he still waged a relentless battle against all odds for the rest of his life and passed away on 26th April 1987.

RK's Intense feelings
at Shankar's demise:
One person who could have resurrected Shankar at this stage was RK who was his maker and unfortunately his nemesis also and RajKapoor was seen to feel intensely for the man on his death as he made a personal appearance on Bombay TV's Chaya Geet, to pay his salad day's composer a tribute.
As I passed my boyhood, nourishing on SJ's music and passed on to adolescence and into the formative years stealing a prosaic glance into the sands of time I recollect how the S-J wave had gathered momentum just when I was leaving the harbourage of boyhood and peaked just when I was all set to sail the turbulent sea of life. Now, I am immune to the sting that S & J are no more in flesh and blood but their melodies in the form of memories live on and giving us cause to remember them in a large canvass of assosciated artistes, singers, accompaniments, arrangers,instrumen talists and so on.

It is perhaps, the Almighty's decree that Jaikishan ji be relieved at the top of the high tide and not be left forlorn by a receding wave,leaving the burden of the cross to be borne by his illustrious robust colleague Shanker for the next sixteen years. Even as the pain of their loss is dredged up along with the past, we continue to draw sustenance from the wellsprings of S-J's timeless nuggets.

May their souls rest in peace.
A humble tribute to the legends who made our moods and for me and am sure for most of us it is SJ always irrespective of whose tunes they are S or J.

with humble regards

Wednesday, July 30, 2008

Shanker Jaikishan. Dholak. Rhapsodies in Rhythm.(COURTESY :

Rhapsodies in Rhythm The inimitable Dholak rhythms of Shanker Jaikishan


'Andaz Mera Mastana' is what Shanker Jaikishan (SJ) seem to say in every beat of their songs! In this path breaking article, Anand D. Theke presents THE rhythm guide for the discerning Hindi Film Music (HFM) Fan. A fascinating exploration of the rhythms, which are the very heartbeat of hundreds of SJ songs with a special focus on the dholak. And this certainly is a delectable treat for the true music and HFM aficionado.

Some tips ... Keep your SJ song CDs loaded as you read this. Often, you might get lost in the song and would need to take some effort to return to the point made here! One simple technical point in the terminology of dholak - theka is the central rhythm pattern and a laggi is an inspired improvisation.Over to Anand D. Theke, as he makes a grand beginning in the true, characteristic SJ style! ...

It is 1960. SJ have firmly established themselves as the No.1 Music Directors in the Hindi Film Industry. As the 50s unrolled, SJ have matured as composers, and now find that their exploits are the talk of millions!They launch into the next decade with a showcase extravaganza - A. Andaz Mera Mastana - Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayee (1960)

. 'Andaz Mera Mastana' begins with the enthralling 100 second plus introduction ... which uses the 100 plus SJ orchestra to its limit ... trumpets, saxophone, cello, piano, guitar, violins ... you name it ... in fact, every instrument renders the atmosphere ...with its own colour ..and then the ghungroos ... and then the piano ...and then the accordion flaunts itself ... to introduce Lata with aplomb ... and as Lata sings the opening lines ... Andaaz Mera Mastana ... accompanied by bongos ... listen to the mukhda carefully ...
Andaz Mera Mastana ...
the bongos lend an ebullient rhythm ...
Maange Dil Ka Nazrana ...
the bongos continue ...
Zara Soch Ke Aankh Milana ...
the bongos continue ...
Ho Jaaye Na Tu ...
the bongos continue ...
~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~Deewana ...
the dholak makes a~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~spectacular, splash of an entry accompany Lata & the chorus throughout the song!

Now, watch out for the next line - 'Mera Dil Kaha Hain' ... and listen to the laggi!Now this line gets repeated a total of four times in the song - once at the beginning and then after every antara. And everytime there is a diferent laggi under it ... four different laggis are played on the same line every time it occurs!Of course, all fit snugly into the words and the melody of the line. And these laggis are repeated over the song, keeping Lata and the chorus in vibrant company!For most listeners, this complexity is not evident at all!In fact, check it for yourself - when you listened to Andaz Mera Mastana, did you find that your fingers had unconsciously caught up with the rhythm on the nearest playable surface? Millions have found that to be the case, and it is here that unknowingly SJ have caught you in their magical rhythm spell! It is almost as if one has given SJ that pat on the back ... well almost!

All SJ have done is that a fairly inricate, complex rhythm pattern has reached your ears and sounded so friendly, so simple, that it straight makes a place in the heart! Simple, ain't it? Well, ask any contemporary musician or music director to recreate even a little of this magic! And that was the secret of SJ! High quality, complex compositions became simple enough for the common person to appreciate! That is genius! It is because though SJ may have departed ... their work remains as alive as ever!

Shanker Jaikishan - The Rajkumars of Hindi Film Music (HFM)For the uninitiated, here is a quick background to Shanker Jaikishan and their oeuvre.

Shanker Jaikishan (SJ) began their illustrious career in 1949 and for just over two decades, this duo stormed the world of Hindi films with a brand of music that has a few parallels in the history of Hindi Film Music.

SJ conjured their magic by harmoniously blending various musical elements. First of all - the melodies were sweet and simple. Legends like Lata, Rafi, Mukesh and Manna Dey rendered these melodies and the value they added is evident; Hindi Film Music may perhaps never outgrow that kind of impact.

SJ's formidable orchestra enhanced and embroidered the melodies with complex contras and interludes and the result is for generations to behold - intricate, ornate tapestries of songs!

With SJ wielding the baton, many instruments earned a distinction - the accordion, mandolin, violin, flute & cello among others developed an unmistakable identity.
And finally there were the SJ rhythms! Ebullient, bold and delivered with exceptional panache, the rhythms lent SJ compositions a unique pace and a distinct cadence which added unprecedented value to the images on screen and created THE mood in the listeners mind and heart ! In fact, like their songs, the rhapsodies of rhythm that SJ conjured, have successfully outlived the images and are the focus of attention in this article.

SJ used dholak, dholaki, tabla, bongo and congo as their main percussion instruments. In addition, they used instruments such as taasha and 'chandu' as well. Cymbals, khanjiri and maracas provided ample side rhythm support to the lead instruments. And SJ were such masters in using ALL of these that one could dwell on each of these instruments in their own right at length!

This exploration focuses on the the dholak whilst trying to keep some of the others in focus too!

Even before SJ broke upon the scene, a few venerable music directors like Ghulam Haider, Ghulam Mohammed, Shyamsunder etc. had established the dholak as a main accompaniment instrument for Hindi film songs. One can almost seperate the transformation, before SJ, the instrument was used with a distinct and conventional Pujabi flavor, its main purpose being to provide just an adequate support to the melody. Variations of the core theka, if any, were far and few between. Even their contemporaries, notably 'rhythm king' O.P.Nayyar or even Naushad, confined themselves to this established framework of dholak playing. SJ changed all that!

Let us move to specific examples ... Listen to the weighty theka which accentuates the feel behind these songs which are actually soft, slow paced numbers!
Ek Bewafaa Se Pyaar Kiyaa (Awara 1951)Use Mil Gayee Nayi Zindagi (Halaku 1956)Aansoo Ki Aag Leke Teri Yaad Aayee (Yahudi 1958)Mere Sapne Mein Aana Re, Sajana (Raajhath 1956)

The dholak not only provides a very weighty percussion support; in all these SJ melodies, the dholak actually lends a touch of sheer beauty through laggis and variations; after any pause the beginnings are different and distinctive, the joints between thekas and laggis are subtle & swift; little wonder, they sound seamless because incredible as it might seem - they actually are!

With every film, SJ were making significant contributions to the realm of dholak playing for HFM, even adding some of their own creations in original thekas and firmly establishing their own style of dholak playing.

And SJ continued to shower the Hindi Film Music space with such rhythm fireworks! A resplendent range of laggis, laggis which insidiously resided in the very heart of the main rhythm patterns. And almost every time when the dholak came into the song it did so with great style! Often, it would launch after a pause, or at the beginning of the every mukhada.Most dholak players would be content with a 'Ta tirkit taktaa' type of construct for such a place, but not SJ's dholak players. They had their own innovative variations here too. Let us turn to another SJ classic as an indepth example in the soulful, heart-wrenching ... B. Tera Jaana, Dil Ke Armaanonka Lut Jaana - Anari 1959 For best results, it is strongly recommended that you listen to the song, if you are not doing it already! (Apologies to repeat this ... but it is important) In all probability, you would find yourself flitting between reading and listening! And that is exactly what happens all along this SJ beauty - the theka gracefully keeps giving way to the melody and creates the backdrop. When the melody recedes to create the melancholy mood, the theka only emerges again to take centrestage ... that pattern repeats throughout the song!
The core 'weighty' theka which is interspersed throughout the song and holds it all together is ... "Dhig dha dhig taa Tik taa dhina". The song begins with a brief prelude of violins and an emphatic iano playing in a combination and they quickly gain in intensity to create a sombre mood ... Lata Mangeshkar comes in with ... Tera Jaana ...

The dholak theka begins on the na with a damp Dhig!
Listen carefully ... as Lata sings Tera Jaana ... the dholak joins in on the na with the Dhig which is itself dampened and stressed! That helps significantly to carry through the melody as well as creates the mood right from the word go! Now as Lata takes off on the words 'Koi Dekhe ...', a laggi "Dhig, dha dhig taa, Dhig, taa tik taa" comes in line with the flow of the words!
Tera Jaana is also one song where the interludes have almost become legendary! Most SJ fans remember little nuances and often sing them out too! Tera Jaana also stands out as a rare example of violin interludes being remembered and hummed! Now another characteristic SJ style was to have interludes, which were of a completely western flavour! In the case of Tera Jaana, it is the violins at various pitches and the guitar which strums along, and do not miss the shehnai and flute coming in small tender 'pieces', but ever so sweetly, to create a touching pathos ...As you listen to the song, carefully savour the interlude before the second stanza (Jab Jab Chanda Aayega ...) the mandolin comes in here and as the violins and the guitars create the mood, dont miss the bells ... and the grand orchestration seems to give way to Lata with that fleeting piece of the shahnai!
And we reach ... Jab Jab Chanda Aayega ...Come to the flute-interlude before the line "Main Rokar Rah Jaoongi" and that is when the laggi begins. It carries through this line and surprisingly, on the next line "Dil Jab Zid Par Aayega" switches back to the core theka on the cue of "Dil'!
Main Rokar Raha Jaoongi
Dhig, Dha Dhig Taa, Dhig, Taa Tik Taa
Dil Jab Zid Par Aayega
Dhig Dha Dhig Taa Tik Taa Dhina
Moreover, the changes between the theka and the laggi just do not always follow the traditional usage of a joining piece. With SJ rhythms, you have to expect the unexpected! And there is more!
After this stanza, listen to the theka accompanying the final 'Tera Jaana, Dil Ke Armaano Ka Lut Jaana'.It unexpectedly falls silent around 'Lut', only to be taken over by the laggi on the 'na' of 'Jaana'!
Literally, on the other hand, a subtle 'takey titkit' bit facilitates the change from the theka to a small swift play on the baaya at the end of 'Ban Ke Taqdeeron Ka Mit Jaana'!
It is this unpredictability of what to expect and when, taken together with the very weighty playout of the theka and the laggis that make this song's dholak accompaniment, a treat for the sensitive listener.
Yet another example of the dholak accompaniment to a sad, slow paced song is the title song of Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayee. There are surprisingly, no fireworks here, but the theka is so sweet and soul-stirring in itself, it does more than carry through the melancholy of Lata's rendering. "Ye Hariyaali Aur Ye Raasta' also fits into this category of sad songs with grave theka accompaniment.
OK! So this very weighty theka goes with the sad and melancholy, right? That is what most people would come to believe! SJ establish that beyond any doubt and then bounce back and throw all their weight to get you in a swinging mood in "Ye To Kaho, Kaun Ho Tum, Kaun Ho Tum" (Aashiq 1962) using this very weighty theka! Raj Kapoor actually dances to this theka on screen and many film buffs too had to do likewise in theatres!
SJ's dholak really comes into its own on those numerous fast paced, swinging songs many of which Lata Mangeshkar rendered majestically. Most of these accompaniments, intricate as they were, were extempore and therefore it is rather difficult to discern a pattern amongst them.
However, the discerning ear can still find a certain framework can:
1. Begin with the core theka ...2. Break off into a laggi, usually on the third line of the opening of the song3. Have a few more laggis into the song's opening (mukhda). It gets repeated after each stanza and within the stanza, as it fits well into the flow of words.4. Swift transitions between the theka and a laggi, on many occasions introduce those 'silences' as in the Tera Jana example5. Fill in the gaps between lines with dholak chaati (daaya) interlude, 6. Finally, break off after a pause with a small piece that stands out in itself !
Also remember that characteristic trade mark dampening of the first beat (the one of sum) of their theka playing for dholak.
Let us now take up another classic example fromthe SJ repertoire which also highlights our framework above.
C. Main Piya Teri Tu Maane Ya Na Maane - Basant Bahar 1956
535 KB OST flute!Many Hindi Film Music Fans believe with Basant Bahar, SJ did a Naushad! Or actually matched or even surpassed him! And what better 'jugalbandi' for music buffs when such masters treated them to this quality of music!
The song itself is a classic bhajan kind of a composition in the preferred raag of SJ - Bhairavi! A musical ode to Krishna - the song has the flute of Pannalal Ghosh 'singing' a duet with Lata Mangeshkar. (Many believe it is the sound of God!) And the dholak is there all along, lending a cadence to every melodious overture of devotion! Somewhere along the way, a sense of the erotic comes in and one key cause of it is due to the dholaks blending both moods! Listen to this laggi 'Tirkit taghenta naak" gushing all over this song!
On screen, this song too, has those patent one minute SJ preludes, but this time it is with the sublime long flute piece ... the violins pick up the final notes from the flute to announce the entry of the dancing heroine ... Lata comes in with Main Piya Teri ... a soft almost tender and yet earnest note ...And as she 'states' Main Piya Teri' the dholak surges all over with the theka "Dhik dhatik ta Dhadhi".and the flute wafts in ... clearly in a mood to serenade! As we move to the third line ... Lata implores the Lord with the line 'Kaahe Ko Bajaaye Tu Mithi Mithi Taane' ... the dholak breaks off into a laggi "Dhadhag da Dha tin naak."Look at the interludes ... especially the flute pieces ... which have 'Tirkit taghenta naak" all over it!And the variations continue! The first line of the stanzas, 'Murali Ki Lai Ne Dil Mera Chheena' has the core theka, but on 'Raag Uthaye Maine Raag Uthaye' has the 'Dhetta gadhaa, Dheta kataa' laggi!When the mukhda line of Main Piya Tera repeats in the stanzas, 'Dhin, dhagid Dhig tinaa ta" laggi takes over!
Throughout this SJ classic, when the mukhada repeats after every antara, it features a very subtle interplay of the daaya and baya. Do not miss that! A song that truly enchants and like the sangam of Radha & Krishna, the dholak rhythms simply dissolve in the meoldy!
D. Haaye Tu Hi Gayaa Mohe Bhool Re - Kathputli 1957Kathputli was a score which had SJ innovating at their best!The title song came in two versions. The fast version was sweet and yet the slower version of the song remains as some kind of landmark - most people just cannot make out what that composition is and yet it stands out as an extraordinary piece of work! You can catch some shades in common between these songs especially their rhythms.'Haaye Tu Hi Gayaa Mohe Bhool Re' also has that one and a half minute preludes.And it has a very unusal beginning ... a medley of various instruments ... which create an energy of its own ... listen to the song carefully because it is here that you can listen to the silences of the dholak!The key rhythm characteristic of this SJ gem is in the transitions! Watch out for the points when the dholak switches from a theka to a laggi and it is difficult to make out that the switch is made! And the switch is made through 'poignant silences' or rests!Catch that moment in the mukhda itself ... when the dholak switches from "Mohe Bhool Re' to 'Main Hoon Tere Jeevan Ki Raagini'.
The stanzas of this song have a galaxy of variations!On the first line of the stanza, 'Tere Naghme Taare Bankar, Chamke Sab Ke Pyaare Bankar, the core theka plays ...... and over the flute interlude that follows the dholak DOUBLES the pace to continue in that mode through the rest of the stanza only to conclude on the sum after cutting the pace to HALF!And when the mukhda line comes in again - 'Haaye Tu Hi Gaya' the 'Tikdha tirkit Takta tirkit' construct gives it company!
In the second stanza the first line of the stanza 'Phir Se Aisa Raag Suna De' gets the core theka, only to be followed by a 'Dhettaagadha Dhettaakataa" laggi on the first 'Jhoom Uthey Yeh Hum Gham Ke Maare'. When you listen to this song do not miss the 'kradhin tirkit taktaa tirkit' which is splashed over all breaks!
Kathputli has rated as one of SJs finest scores for a film. And in all the big popular hit songs, Haaye Tu hi Gaya is often lost by many fans! However, this rather unusual gem of SJ too is a song which brings credit to Sj for the superlative composition and arrangement! Make it a point to listen to it! Highly recommended for the true blue SJ & HFM fan!
E. Aate Jaate Pehloo Mein Aaya Koi - Yahudi 1958Now this song begins with a crackling bongo and that crackling sound becomes a motif for the dholak to embroider this SJ tapestry! As the song unfolds ...Aate Jaate Pehloo Mein Aaya KoiMere Dil Batla Na Chhupa ...and we come to the third line ...
The magic of the dholak in this song really takes off here!
Aaj Se,Main Tujhe,Dil Kahoo,Ya Dilruba ...
Listen to the dholak it breaks off into a beautiful laggi here!
Teri Sunoo Aur Sunti RahooMain Apni Tadap Chhupa LooPhir Bhi Kaha Tak Sabr KarooMain Khud Ko Kitna Samhaloo?
The first two lines of the stanza are, both adorned with different laggis.On 'Phir Bhi Kaha Tak Sabr Karu', the fascinating 'Dhigdhati Naakadhin', comes in!And watch out this very laggi is played on the closing of 'Mere Dil Batlaa Naa Chhupaa'.The second stanza Mast Nazar Tu Ne Yeh Kya Kiya ... has the same fascinating pattern repeated.
And now let us expect what is unexpected what else can one do with SJ? As we go to the last stanza ... Tera Tassavur Tera Hi Gham Labon Pe Tera Tarana ... The core theka is playing here ... but now ...'Neend Se Bhi Ab Kehti Hoon Main' has another beautiful rippling laggi giving saath!
And on the final line try and catch this silence ...
Tu Unko Khwab Mein LanaThe dholak suddenly falls silent and gives way on na!
A subtle, racy 'Dhig dhitta Tak dhitta' joins in with the mukhada and repeats for the last time in the song. 'Mere Dil Batla Naa Chhupa'! And did you notice that all the Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Lata refrains have a cheerful bongo and of course the mandolin 'playing' along?
When the songs were fast paced, SJ actually came into their own! The core theka the variations, the silences makes one wonder and realize that 'Tera Tassavvur, Tera Hi Gham, Labon Pe Tera Tarana' was something that is really left with us and SJ meant every word of it! Here is a list of 25 SJ gems which are studded in enchanting rhythm patterns and each is an ornament in itself! Mind you the actual bnumber of songs is much longer, we have chosen 25! Listening to these masterpieces is not just entertainment of the highest order but also can be an education!

No. Song -Film-Year


1. Ramayya Vastavayya' (Shri 420 1955)
2. Kar Gaya Re Kar Gaya Re Kar Gaya Mujhpe Jadoo' (Basant Bahar 1956)
3. Manabhawan Ke Ghar' (Chori Chori 1956)
4. Hai Tu Hi Gayaa Mohe Bhool Re' (Kathputli 1957)
5. Bagad Bum Bum Bum' (Kathputli 1957)
6. 'Dil Mein Pyar Ka Toofan' ( Yahudi 1958)
7. Meri Jaan Meri Jaan' (Yahudi 1958)
8. Tera Jalwaa Jisne Dekha' (Ujala 1959)
9. Ho Mora Naadan Baalama' (Ujala 1959)
10. Andaaz Mera Mastaana' (Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayee 1960)
11. Mera Dil Ab Tera O Saajana' (Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayee 1960)
12. Tum Roothi Raho' (Aas Ka Panchhi 1961)
13. Sau Saal Pehle' (Jab Pyar Kisise Hota Hai 1961)
14. Kashmir Ki Kali Hoon Main' (Junglee 1961)
15. Din Sara Gujara Tore Angna'( Junglee 1961)
16. Tujhe Jeevan Ki Dor Se' (Asli Naqli 1962)
17. Wo Chale' (Hamrahi 1963)
18. Wo Din Yaad Karo' (Hamrahi 1963)
19. Bahar Banke Woh Musquaraye' (Ek Dil So Afsaane 1963)
20. Tumko Hamari Umar' (Aaye Milan Ki Bela 1964)
21. Aaye Re Din Sawaan Ke' (Gaban 1966)
22. Maine Dekha Tha' (Gaban 1966)
23. Paan Khaye Saiyya Hamaaro' (Teesri Kasam 1966)
24. Chalat Musafir' (Teesri Kasam 1966)
25. Hare Kaanch Ki Choodiyan' (Hare Kaanch Ki Choodiyan 1967)

Once you savour music compositions and arrangements of this order, it is not a mystery why SJ were the foremost music directors of their times and left behind templates for others to follow. They innovated and their creations helped them stay at the top. Variations also came through consistently. Like in all other departments, SJ's dholak players too invented new thekas and rendered them in novel ways too! Clearly, it was team effort of top class mucisians doing what they do best ... make good music!Almost all of the dholak songs would be characterised by a variety of laggis spread around at appropriate points along the melody. Invariably, a laggi would be played on the third line of the mukhada. Examples of this are 'Main Piya Teri', 'Aate Jaate Pehloo Mein Aaya Koi', 'Tera Jalwa', 'Tum Roothi Raho', 'Ek Dil Aur Sau Afsane', 'Ek Bewafaa Se Pyar Kiya', 'Aansoo Ki Aag Leke'. Within the antara, laggis would appear as demanded by the flow of the words and the melody.
A chef might give spicy 'tadka' to the daal. Almost in a similar vein, every SJ dholak song features at least one laggi within the antara. Of course, these inspired improvisations appear effortlessly and delectably blend into the song. Laggis would also be played over the interludes between lines of an antara. And more often than not, they would appear over the mukhada and would be repeated at the end of an antara. And this is one element that made songs with simple melodies so memorable and made a home in every heart!

Let us take a DOZEN DHOLAK SJ examples in brief ...
We begin with two from Yahudi (1958). 1. 'Dil Mein Pyar Ka Toofan' has the theka 'Dhita Dhindhinak' resounding all over the song all over the place!And that theka created a tempest ... a listener almost finds himself airborne!
2. 'Meri Jaan Meri Jaan' 'Dhig Dhadha Tik Dhadha' is the core theka.Go to the line 'Koi kya kare haye, koi kya kare?' and listen to the long dayaa-alone piece over it!Yet another innovation which made this song simply remarkable for the dholak accompaniment. 3. 'Haye Tu Hi Gaya Mohe Bhool Re' has 'Tigdha tirkit Taktaa tirkit' or 'Kradhin tirkit Taktaa tirkit' as the core theka and this song has many siblings ... Main Piya Teri', 'Tera Jalwa Jisne Dekha', 'Manbhavan Ke Ghar Jaaye Gori', 'Dil Ka Na Aarna Aitbaar Koi', 'Nache Ang Ang Tere Aage', 'Aansoo Ki Aag Leke', 'Bhaiyya Mere Raakhi Ke Bandhan Ko Nibhaana', 'Begaani Shaadi Mein, Abdulla Deewana'.- all have the stamp of 'Tigdha tirkit Taktaa tirkit' or 'Kradhin tirkit Taktaa tirkit' as the rhythm refrain!
4. 'Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayee' both the mukhada and the antara begins with a restrained 'Tak tirkit Tak tirkit'. Or in 'Tum Roothi Raho', we find the simple but effective 'Taktaktak Taktaktak"!
5. Let us now consider one of the most exciting examples ... Let us begin with the simpler version which we get in 'Din Saara Guzaara Tore Angana'.Listen to the 'Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat'. When and where? You cannot miss it! Simply unmistakable!6. And now go to 'Kashmir Ki Kali Hoon Main' where you will meet the same old 'Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat' in a truly pulsating form!And towards the end of the song ... 'Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat' changes its form to 'Dhirdhirgat______ Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat' [a (1_+ 2) variation]to launch the mukhda ... 'Kashmir Ki Kali Hoon Main' and takes the listener completely by surprise!Many SJ songs ... 'Bahar Banke Woh Musquaraye', 'Surat Hasin, Lagata Hai Diwaana' and 'Maine Dekha Tha Sapanon Mein Ik Chandrahar' have the same 'Dhirdhirgat Dhirdhirgat' in a simple [1+1+1] format! Check it out!
7. Let us take yet another example from Gaban - just to listen to the dholak baya!'Ehsaan Mere Dil Pe Tumhara Doston'.Violins begin this song in characteristic SJ style and Rafi goes solo with the first line of the mukhda,and when he repeats the mukhda just watch the dholak baya come in playfully! And listen to that baay throughout this number! Little wonder that the SJ fan too reciprocates the gratitude that rafi exudes through the song!8. 'Ghar Aaya Mera Pardesi' from Awara is possibly one of the exemplary songs for having a wonderfully brilliant theka and a range of laggis all around. Although strictly not a dholak song (for it was a dholaki song), the recording of this song was stalled for hours because no one - Raj Kapoor, SJ and their entire team was happy with the rhythm accompaniment. Someone suggested the name of a dholaki player called and Lala Gangawane was ushered in called - a tall strappling man carrying a little dholaki walked into the studio well past midnight! As SJs assistant and the man in charge of their rhythm section Dattaram has mentioned "Lalabhau poured out his heart in the song, he played every possible variation, every possible nuance and the result was pure magic". Do listen to this song once as it mingles with Lata, the mandolin and the chorus as well as the range of instruments!
9. When you listen to another SJ classic - 'Baat Baat Pe Rootho Na' which too has extraordinary dholak accompaniment, make it a point to catch the laggi "Dhin taak taa dhin Dhi taak taa dhettaa" played over the last line of every antraa for e.g.,"Jeevan Safar Mein Sukh Ho Ya Dukh Ho, Rona Padega Akele". 10. Now 'Manbhavan Ke Ghar Aaye Gori', presents another fascinating imporvisation! After every antara when the line 'Hame Na Bhoolaana' the dholak effortlessly breaks into a double paced laggi!
11. 'Dil Ka Na Karna Aitbaar Koi' has 'Dhitta ge tin, Titta ge dhin' as the core theka construct. OK? Now years later over the 'Tumhari qasam tum bahut yaad aaye' & 'Sau Saal Pehle' has the same construct repeated!12. 'O mora naadan baalma' Come to the line 'Na jaane ji ki baat, o hoi, na maane ji ki baat' and catch the the dayaa-alone play over that line. It is simply astounding! Two LP songs immediately come to mind ... Hasta Hua Noorani Chehra and Ooi Maa Ooi Maa Yeh Kya Ho Gaya ... now is this what you call inspiration?Such variations were 'routinely' deployed by SJ so to speak ... so much so that professional musicians working in the film ndustry today confes that it is simply impossible for the to even emulate such a feat!
The 'Dhigtak Dhigi dhagi' chapter!
Amongst all the SJ dholak theka innovations it is the zesty 'Dhigtak Dhigi dhagi' which has somehow defied boundaries of space and time! Commonly known as Dattaram theka, after the person who created it, SJ used it wonderfully in several of their songs. Actually, the theka can be seen to evolve over a period of time. The theka seems to have come into its own after SJ began using it abundantly over the years! And so did many other music directors! Check out the development over a decade and a half!

  • 10 SJ songs based on Dattaram Theka
    Film, Year
    Nanhe Munne Bachche Boot Polish, 1953
    Mera Joota Hain Japani Shree 420, 1955
    Pyar Hua Iqraar Hua Shree 420, 1955
    Woh Chaand Khilaa Anari 1959
    Main Rikshawalla Chhoti Bahen 1959
  • Main Rangila Pyar Ka Raahi Chhoti Bahen 1959
    Tune Mera Dil Le Liya Shararat 1959
    Rikshe Pe Mere Tum Aa Baitho Dil Tera Diwana 1962
    Jane Mera Dil Kise Dhoond Raha Laat Saheb 1967
    Parde Mein Rahne Do Shikar 1968

This theka captivated the imagination of many composers till the disco theka came in the late 70s. However, even today, the Dattaram theka continues to provide support for melodies in films and even advertising jingles right in the 21st century. Let us quickly take a survey of the other rhythm instruments of SJ and of course the tabla deserves priority.
SJ's used tabla together with the dholak in some slow paced songs. This combination seemed to be aimed at bringing to the fore the sharp chaati sound of the tabla, while the dholak provided the low pitched bayaa support. Listen to this fascinating combination in 'Din Saara Guzara Tore Angana' (Junglee 1961), 'Tumko Hamari Umar Lag Jaaye' (Aaye Milan Ki Bela, 1964) and 'Tumhari Kasam Tum Bahut Yaad Aaye' (Gaban, 1966).
Left to itself, the tabla would usually provide a fully filled-in theka to the song. Consider two songs to ring out this contrast. 'Unke Sitam Ne Loot Liya' (Kaali Ghata, 1951) has the rather insipid, simple waltz-like tabla theka. Come 1956 and 'Aaja Ke Intezar Mein' from Halaku gets a filled-in tabla. The same filled-in tabla is there in 'So Ja Re So Ja Mere' (Kathputli, 1957) as well. A different version of the filled-in accompaniment is seen in 'Ja Ja Re Ja Balamawa' (Basant Bahar 1956).
When the rhythms of SJ created the mood and ambience for a song it often happened so subtly that most listeners experienced the impact without realizing what was happening in the beats in the background and how. Take the example of 'Na Chhedo Kal Ke Afsane' (Raat Aur Din, 1967). The character on screen is inebriated and the tabla keeps to off- beat steps, underlining the stupor of the lady. The theka their tabla keeps in 'Lakho Taare Aasman Mein' (Hariyali Aur Rasta, 1962) is unique and an extension of the filled-in playout form it always followed. When SJ used the Jhaptaal too they have used it in a variety of contexts: 'Tumhare Hain Tumse Dayaa Maangte Hain' (Boot Polish, 1953), ' Kahan Jaa Raha Hain' (Seema, 1955), 'Bhay Bhanjana Vandana Sun Hamari ' (Basant Bahar, 1956), 'Mujhe Tumse Kuchh Bhi Na Chahiye' (Kanhaiyya, 1959) and 'Masoom Chehara' (Dil Tera Diwana, 1962).
It will be an understatement to say SJ gave bongo and congo their own places of pride in the context of Hindi film music. Most of their songs, including their Dholak songs would have an interlude on bongo or congo. Notable amongst these are 'Baat Baat Mein Rootho Na', 'Aaja Sanam Madhur Chandni Mein Hum', 'Dil Mein Pyar Ka Toofan', 'Tera Jaana', 'Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayee', 'Mera Dil Ab Tera O Sajana', 'Kashmir Ki Kali Hoon Main'.
Take a song like 'Sab Kuch Seekha Hum Ne' (Anari). The bongo-congo combination is accompanying this remorseful number at a furious pace. However, the beats are dampenmed and they create the backdrop for Mukesh's soulful rendition of the song. Many an amateur player in their enthusiasm, get stumped with this song, because their rhythm accompaniment gets ebullient rather than sombre!The bongo-combination would follow the changes in pitches of the music when played with a prelude or interlude. Apart from 'Sab Kuchh Seekha Hum Ne', a few examples where this stood out are 'Dhadakne Lagta Hai Mera Dil', 'Tera Jalwa', 'Chheda Mere Dil Ne' (Asli Naqli), 'Kashmir Ki Kali'.
However, the verve of the SJ bongo-congo combination left their impact on milions of listeners ... sample these songs to find out ... Kahe Jhoom Jhoom Raat Yeh Suhani' (Love Marriage, 1959), ' Dheere Dheere Chal' (Love Marriage), 'Hum Matwale Naujawan' (Shararat, 1959), 'Duniya Walon Se Door' (Ujala), 'Aankhon Mein Rang Kyon' (Ek Phool Char Katen, 1960), 'Jab Pyar Kisi Se Hota Hain', 'Chahe Koi Mujhe Junglee Kahe' (Junglee), 'Aiyaiya sukkoo sukkoo' (Junglee), 'Dil Tera Deewana' (D.T.D.), ' Khuli Palak Mein' (Professor 1962), 'Yaha Koi Nahi Tere Mere Siva' (Dil Ek Mandir 1963), 'Hoshiyar Jaane Wale' (Rajkumar, 1964), 'Tere Dil Ke Paas Hi Hain Meri' (Sangam, 1964), 'Chehere Pe Giri Julphe' (Suraj, 1966), 'Unse Mili Nazar' (Jhook Gaya Aasman, 1968).
As with the dholak, there were some very innovative styles of pickup after a pause, or at the very beginning. Who can forget the pickup in 'Sub Kuch Seekha' and 'Chahe Koi Mujhe Junglee Kahe', the unusual ones with slowly released dampings which is also called the bongo slide in 'Kahe Jhoom Jhoom Raat', 'Dheere Dheere Chal', 'Khuli Palak Mein'.There were songs where SJ played the congo and dholak or tabla in tandem for an added effect. Examples are 'Haye Meri Uljhi Najook Nazar'(Aas Ka Panchhi), 'O Shama Mujhe Phook De' (Hariyali Aur Raasta), 'O Sanam Tere Ho Gaye Hum' (Aashiq), 'Har Dil Jo Pyar Karega' (Sangam), 'Mujhe Tum Mil Gaye Humdum' (Love In Tokyo).
Almost every song had a significant component of side rhythm comprising of cymbals (jhanj), khanjiri and maracus. And each had its distinct place within the song. The khanjiri and maracus would alternate depending upon the lines within the song: one would play for the mukhada lines, another would come over the antara lines. And each of them played out the beat to the full, creating a kind of filled in pattern that would swiftly follow the changes in the beat of the main percussion instrument, including those switch pieces we heard earlier. Whenever the jhanj played, it would keep a lovely off beat pattern, in sharp contrast to the traditional and worn out style of 'keeping the beat'.In today's world of synthesized sounds, the rhythms created by SJ and their team continue to sound fresh and also remain as hallmarks of standards for any composer or musician. Many people ask the question: What is it about the music of the Goden Era that makes it attractive even to the teenager of today? The answer is never simple. One of the answers is in these complex rhythms which despite being complex, went in a package that touched the lay person, who probably never even touched a musical instrument in life but firmly believed that it was the song of his or her heart!
This article is meant to be a tribute to the entire SJ team - Shanker, Jaikishan, Dattaram, Sebastian and all those musician masters. It is a humble attempt to recognize these rhythm players and their body of work which remains with us as a treasure of unforgettable rhythms. Here are the men who made it happen with SJ:
Naal: Ambalal, Lala Gangavane. Vibrophone: Anil Mohile, Kersi Lord, Bujji Lord, Farooq, Dheeraj, Salim. Side Rhythm: Jayanti Panchal, Suresh Pardesi, Suraj, Bhosale, Bhagwan Rao, Manohar, Ramakant More. Tabla: Samta Prasad, Abdul Karim, Shankar, Lala Gangavane, Iqbal, Anna Joshi, Lala Ramsingh Pathare, Govind Sattar, Asar. Dholak: Dattaram, Anna Joshi, Ghulam Mohammad, Abdul Karim, Shankar, Sattar, Punyawan, Pankaj Dube. Bongo-Congo: Cawas Lord, Kersi Lord, Bujji Lord, Leslie, Ramchand, Prabhakar Mashelkar. Pathani Dholak: Miskin Khan. Matka: Raambabu, Sardar Balbir Singh. Duff: Dattaram, Ajit Singh. Khanjiri: Faiyyaz. Drums: Bujji Lord, Leslie Fernenades. Chonak: Ganpatrao Mohite, Haribhai.
Anand D. Theke is a Hindi Film Music devotee and a rhythm enthusiast who plays the tabla. For decades he has been enchanted with the rhythms of SJ and has written this article as a tribute. He would like to thank Pune Life Style for providing the web space and also thank you for having read this article. Do
write in to Anand directly!

Monday, July 28, 2008

SHRI 420’ – some rare musings. (by SSMurthy) श्री एस एस मूर्ति शंकर जयकिशन के जीवन एवं उनकी गतिविधियों से भली भांति परिचित हैं एवं इनके फैन हैं

There is this scene iTheren Shree 420, just a little after the film starts unreeling of Raj and the kelewali,(Lalita Pawar) when she says, "aathh aane ka dozen, chhutta lega to, do aane ka teen" and repeats when Raj amuses the kelewali with his "theen ane ka do" and asks her to ponder over, knowing pretty well a bargain, which will never come off, when a beguiled Lalita Pawar calls him back and accepts the offer, when the real truth comes out as Raj shows his empty pockets, but promises to take them at the promised price when he has money.

The scene ends with the kelewali offering the kele to be paid when he has the money and Raj stating what if he absconds? and the kelewali reciprocating "ham sochega ki hamara beta na khaya hai"

such a touching scene so beautifully presented as he goes away stating " Tum kelewali nahin hai dilwali hai dilwali" is comically moving and very touching.

You also have this scene and the background score where the beggar asks Raj to move aside saying "dhandhe ka time hai bhai...." till Nargis slips on the banana peel and later Raj himself is simply fascinating and marvellous.

There was a scene where Raj enters Nadira's house and finding no one, his eyes fall on a pack of cards, which he amusingly picks up and distributes to four players incognito and comically ends up with three ACES for himself. It was here that the Director in Raj shows his showmanship as Nadira makes a grand entry with a dazed and mischevous look as she says "Shabash"


SJ resoundingly reciprocate in the background, with the acordion flourish of "Kisiki muskurahaton. ...." , It was in this scene where you can see a sozzled Johhny Jaikishan and also in "Mud mud ke na dekh mud mud ke...." .

This incident marks a significant turning point to Raj's reel life in the movie since then, as much as Nadira's real life where she admittedly regretted joyfully, the mistake of accepting this character of a vamp, a role that became so popular and brought her accolades, but never again the pedestal of the leading lady.


SJ's music at RK Supplanted By LP and others . The circumstancesTo: by murthy ss

murthy ss <> wrote:
Raj as actor director has known audience rejection only once in "Aah" but its music a remarkable feast for the ears for years to come, with music to treasure in Boot Polish and Shre 420.
With his romantic tuning with Nargis coming to an end after Shree 420, Raj showed resilience, in the style with which he moved on to Padmini and later on with Vyjayantimala.
Such was the quality of music that he drew out of SJ at RK, that Raj's romantic image remained in tact even sans Nargis. His image broke only with MNJ eventhough the film's music like the film itself became a landmark With Shailendra and Jaikishan gone and KAAK compounding the staggering losses of MNJ, serious differences between Lata and Shankar to such an extent that one of the conditions for Lata to sing for RK was replacement of SJ (Shankar) by LP.
Raj who was on a Disaster Resrruction Plan was under severe pressure at that time and contemplating the various pros and cons on some drastic heart wrenching decisions. Raj was convinced there had to be a change.
Bobby with its refreshing change of pace came to mark a watershed at RK because while going through the painful exercise of breaking with Shankar with that film RK had to accept the harsh and grim reality that his own innings as the perennial romantic was over. He had to not only banish himself as the hero but also banish his soul Mukesh and recreate the Nargis Raj aura through a younger Raj (his son Rishi) a younger Nargis (in the nymphet shape of Dimple and a younger SJ........?.whom he could guide to keep, heart beat with the young lovers.
This drastic switch over came in the form of Laxmikant Pyarelal achieving their lifetime ambition of stepping into the RK sanctuary that belonged to SJ till then.
Ironically it was Mukesh who brought LP in pleading that if the duo missed out taking from Shankar now, the privilege would go to some rival composer since Raj had made up his mind on the change.. RK worked this oracle musically, of course by casting Dimple as Bobby, opposite Rishi Kapoor and took pains to see that LP tuned with him as effecttively as SJ had. The Bobby musical landmark with its young rebel strain of "Hum tum ek kamre me bandh ho..." has a refreshingly electrifying effect, while SSS, and Premrog though popular enough did not quite make the Bobby impact.
This probably happened because Raj even while working with LP and later with other MD's, was hooked on to SJ's style of music. It was inevitable that LP as creative composers themselves should shy away and draw themselves away from RK at some stage. Any MD that walks into RK gets cast in the SJ format.
It happened to LP and later on to Ravindra Jain.
Ram Teri Ganga Maili has proved to be a runaway musical hit and Lata herself at the film's HMV function identified all music in RK Films as given by Raj Kapoor himself much to the consternation of Ravindra Jain sitting in the front row of the function hall.

SSMURTHY's take on "Shankar's anecdotal recollections of Jaikishan during the recording" Review of "AMRAPALI" by ssmurthy

Dr Jadhav, recalling Shankar's anecdotal recollections of Jaikishan during the recording tells how Jaikishan teasingly told Lata not to look at him while singing the mukhada of the song.Jadhav ji, What a chord you have touched. --ssmurthy
"Jaao re jogi tum jaaore ye hai premiyon ki nagari" of Lata on was the counter teasing her not got over obsession of Jai in the aftermath of his marriage with Pallavi in 1963.
This song though credited to Jaikishan was actually composed by Shankar and as per the practice in vogue both were present during the recording session.
"Neele gagan ki chaon men ..." was the only song composed by Jai apart from the background music which otherwise was a totally Shankar dominated film, for the kind of music the script warranted.
This was somewhere around 1965 & 1966, the famous releases during that time ie 1966 being, Guide, Suraj ,Teesri Kasam and Amrapali.
I had this friend of mine who was certainly obsessed with Vyjayanti and more so,when she was donning the role of Amrapali and capped on the top of it all, SJ as the MD.
We all went to watch this film and our unbiassed minds were soon captured by Ajatashatru the role donned by Sunil Dutt as most dominant which caught the viewer's imagination as most captivating after "Mujhe jeene do" in which he played a dacoit's role so convincingly.
It is only with Vyjayanti's entrance centrestage, that the scene changes. With her costumes and dance sequences so well choreographed, does Sunil Dutt get backstage, and she continiues her beautiful screen presence, dancing wistfully and vivaciously till she gets into a dilemma over the obsession of her lover in Ajatshatru, whom she till then, believes him to be an ordinary Sainik.
Despondency looms large as she pines over her Sainik's frequency of absence and presence. Torn apart by her lovers absence which at times were dictated by the nature of his compulsions towards his bewildered and beloved Amrapali, immortal tunes like "Tadap yeh dil..."..and "Tumhe yaad karte karte" were born.
And what tunes they turned out to be, virtually the nucleus around which the whole of Amrapali seems to be revolving.
Again Shailendra at his simple but profoundly effective, penchant expression on solitude of seperation;
"Tumhe yaad karte karte,
jaayegi rain sari,
tum legayo ho apni,
sang neend bhi hamari"
Man hai ke jaa basa hai,
anjaan ek nagar me,
kuch khojtha hai pagal,
khoyi huyi dagar me"
"Birha ke is chitaa se ,
tumhi mujhe nikalo,
jo tum na aa sako ,
mujhe swapn me bula lo"
Hauntingly melodious SJ could have not done better justice as the said songs leave an everlasting imprint in the realm of a world of perennial ecstatic remembrance.
Hear them on a quiet dusky evening with stillness around you after sunset and you will realise the full essence of what I mean.
However for me the classic melody, and a rare one at that, is the total chorus number "Aao nacho gaon... " which is mindboggling in its breathless sweep and sway, while keping the melody in tact, calls for an exacting virtuoso as the harbinger in conducting the orchestra and who else could it be, but the inimitable "Shankar" in full majestic cry.
The sitar, flute and chorus combination is an exercise of musical wizardry and maintaining it throughout the marathon song, calls for an uncanny knack rarely found in the canvas of musical exuberance.
As the film draws to an end Amrapali fixes her gaze towards the Buddha, and the feelings on her countenance in contempt of the war Ajatshatru waged for her, leading to his desperation of loosing her to the act of breaking the victorious sword into two, as a mark, symbolic of realisation, with the bakground score chanting of
Buddham sharanam gacchami...Dhammam sharanam gachhami.. Sangham sharanam gachhami ..."
is beyond expression and only to be seen and heard audiovisually to be cherished.

Thursday, July 24, 2008

Music Review of ANARI by V N RAO (

ANARI, a silver jubilee hit, was one of the outstanding films produced by LB films Pvt. Ltd and directed by Hrishikesh Mukerjee. Incidentally the same producer L. B. Lachman produced another silver jubilee hit Asli Naqli starring Dev Anand and Sadhana under the baton of Shankar Jaikishan(SJ). Anari was acclaimed by critics as a clean film with good storyline with a social message that truth always triumphs over falsehood, good acting by of Raj Kapoor,Nutan and Lalita Pawar and above all memorable music by SJ where creativity and imagination of SJ was in full bloom whether it is melody like Dil ki najar se.... sad song like Tera jaana....or for that matter songs such as Kisi ki muskurahatonpe.....and 1956,1957, 1958 ......based on western music. In composing music for this film, SJ used accordion extensively to prove to the HFM lovers that accordion bajana to unke liye to bayen hath ka khel hai.
The first song of the film is banake panchhi Lata and chorus. Here SJ set a benchmark so to say for a 'picnic song on bicycles. The prelude kick starts with fast notes of violins in a descending scale to rhythmic beats of Dholak/Tabla and there is a smooth transition to accordion in a true SJ style and it is back to notes of violins in ascending scale at the end of which Mukhda starts. The bubbling Nutan has done full justice to the song by her smiling face swinging her 'pony' tail riding a bicycle. The first interlude starts with violins followed by yodelling by female chorus with chirping of birds perched on tree branches which is beautifully replicated by SJ using flute and violins. The second interlude starts with accordion followed by ringing of bicycle bells and sound of rubber horn emanating from bicycle ridden by Raj Kapoor add authenticity to the scene.
The second song is Kisi ki Mukesh where prelude is quite long and brilliant and starts with piano notes, ending with mandolin. In between there is brilliant interpolation of accordion, fast notes of mandolin and violins and there is a sudden beats of western drums ending with a hard strike on cymbals at the fag end of the prelude. This is in keeping with the scene where boy scouts are shown marching saluted by Raj Kaopor in appreciation. SJ has brilliantly introduced mandolin notes just before the 'mukhda' where Raj Kapoor rescues an insect crawling on the road with the help of a leaf. First interlude is all the way English flute and mandolin to the soft beats of drums, wire bristles and double bass. Since the song is composed on purely western style of music, no dholak or tabla has been used. Second interlude stands out with mandolin followed by accordion.
The third song is by Lata and Mukesh Woh Chand khila......the mukhda of which is based on western symphony violin orchestra. One of the jewels in the 'crown 'of preludes using accordion and violin shows the masterly command of SJ over accordion. It is a fast paced song to the brilliant rhythmic beats of dholak superbly played by the percussion artist. The first interlude is all accordion and violin whereas the second interlude is mandolin.
The fourth song is new year bash song 1956, 1957, Manna Dey and chorus in a club where Raj Kapoor takes a reluctant Lalita Pawar to a club where New Year bash is being celebrated. . This is also a fast paced song with violins, trumpet and double bass all the way in a true western style.The brilliance of SJ can be experienced when there is a sudden flash of drums along 1959 which ends with a hard strike on cymbals. This is to raise the' spirit' of the joyous occasion like welcoming the new year.
The fifth song is a duet by Mukesh and Lata Dil ki najar se.....which is a piano based song. During antara there is beautiful rendition of piano in the background showing the class of SJ in music composition. It is a percussion less song where soft beats are provided by double bass.
The sixth song by Mukesh is Sub kuch seekha.....brings out all the innocence and honesty of Raj Kapoor in the role of a simpleton in the film.Conga drums have been used since there is no set rhythmic pattern for this song. Once again accordion and violins dominate both prelude and interlude of this song.
The seventh song is a sad song Tera jana dil Lata where the rendition of flute after each antara line enhances the sad mood of the song. In this song violins have been used to telling effect. Another speciality of this song is the use of what is called Dattaram Theka which is a trade mark patent of Dattaram. It is basically deals with variations of dholak/tabla beats as the song progresses from mukhda-antara-mukhda. This enhances the listening pleasure as there is no such thing as' monotonous' beats of persuasion instrument throughout the song.
In a nutshell it can be concluded that SJ have shown what stuff they are made of in replicating the mood of the actors, scene and situation by selective and judicious use of various instruments thus providing out of this world listening pleasure to connoisseurs of HFM.